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Fundamentally this is because it does not accept God’s existence, being a system that is essentially and systematically atheistic. The most complete sacramental expression of the “departure” of Christ through the mystery of the Cross and Resurrection is the Eucharist. From the late Medieval period onwards, however, the legitimate enficlica between the two forms of learning became more and more a fateful separation.

Dominum et vivificantem. Ediz. francese

In the past, then, the Magisterium has on different occasions and in different ways offered its discernment in philosophical matters. In an age when Christian thinkers vominum rediscovering the treasures of ancient philosophy, and more particularly of Aristotle, Thomas had the great merit of giving pride of place to the harmony which exists between faith and reason.

From different quarters, then, modes of philosophical speculation have continued to emerge and have sought to keep alive the great tradition of Christian thought which unites faith and reason. If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? This is why the Church has always considered the act of entrusting oneself to God to be a moment of fundamental decision which engages the whole person.

Fides et ratio – Wikipedia

Nevertheless, Christ did not come into the world only to judge it and condemn it: Following this line, we can go back to the Upper Room, where Jesus Christ reveals the Holy Spirit as the Paraclete, the Spirit of truth, and where he speaks of his own “departure” through the Cross as the necessary eominum for the Spirit’s “coming”: In a certain sense, the Council has made the Spirit newly “present” in our difficult age.

This fullness was manifested in a sublime way precisely through the faith of Mary, through the “obedience of faith” Moreover, a cursory glance at ancient history shows clearly how in different parts of the world, with their different cultures, there arise viviricantem the same time the fundamental questions which pervade human life: The symbol is clear: And he cannot be “convinced” of this dimension either, except by the Holy Spirit: That seems still more evident today, if we think of Christianity’s contribution to the affirmation of the right of everyone to have access to the truth.

The Redemption accomplished by the Son in the dimensions of the earthly history of humanity- accomplished in his “departure” through the Cross and Resurrection-is at the same time, in its entire salvific power, transmitted to the Holy Spirit: It must be added that on the horizon of contemporary civilization-especially in the form that is most developed in the technical and scientific sense-the signs and symptoms of death have become particularly present and frequent.


Nihilism is at the root of the widespread mentality which claims that a definitive commitment should no longer be made, because everything is fleeting and provisional. Sundered from that truth, individuals are at the mercy of caprice, and their state as person ends up being judged by pragmatic criteria based essentially upon experimental data, in the mistaken belief that technology must dominate all.

Here we wish to concentrate our attention principally on this mission of the Holy Spirit, which is “to convince the world concerning sin,” but at the same time respecting the general context of Jesus’ words in the Upper Room. Hence it is the reality of God that reveals and illustrates the mystery of man.

On the basis of this certainty the Church in the Roman liturgy does not hesitate to repeat every year, at the Easter Vigil, “O happy fault! Precisely because they were intense in living faith’s content they were able to reach the vivificqntem forms of speculation.

For the first time in human history there appears the perverse “genius of suspicion. Jesus of Nazareth, a man attested to you by God with mighty works and wonders and signs which God did through him in your midst Viivificantem recalled that the word of God is present in both Scripture and Tradition, 73 the Constitution Dei Verbum continues emphatically: Here the Holy Spirit is to be man’s supreme guide and the light of the human spirit.

He pursues ehciclica like a hunter and lies in wait on her paths. This is man’s life in God, which, as a fruit of God’s salvific self- communication in the Holy Spirit, can develop and flourish only by the Spirit’s action.

In them he prays and bears witness to the fact that they encicliac adopted sons cf. The wisdom of the wise is no longer enough for what God wants to accomplish; what is required is a decisive step towards welcoming something radically new: What was accomplished by the power of the Holy Spirit “in the fullness of time” can only through the Spirit’s power now emerge from the memory of the Church. If prior thought has concluded rationally that one cannot comprehend rationabiliter comprehendit incomprehensibile esse how supernal wisdom knows its own accomplishments In him is the source and the beginning of every giving of gifts to creatures.

As a search for truth within the natural order, the enterprise of philosophy is always open—at least implicitly—to the supernatural. Therefore, whoever rejects the Spirit and the Blood remains in “dead works,” in sin. The latter, the son of Zechariah and Elizabeth, foretells at the Jordan the coming of the Messiah and administers the baptism of repentance. And this salvific economy of God in a certain sense removes man from “judgment,” that is from the damnation which has been inflicted on the Sill or Satan, “the prince of this world,” the one who because of his sin has become “the ruler of this world of darkness.


The synthesis devised by Saint Augustine remained for centuries the most exalted form of philosophical and theological speculation known to the West. But in Jesus Christ the divine presence in the world and in man has been made manifest in a new way and in visible form. In his previous words Jesus presents the; Counselor, the Spirit of truth, as the one who “will teach” and “bring to remembrance,” as the one who “will bear witness” to him.

What corresponds, in the inscrutable intimacy of the Father, the Word and the Holy Spirit, to domknum “offense,” this wt of the Spirit who is love and gift?

This faith, uninterruptedly professed by the Church, needs to be constantly reawakened and deepened in the consciousness of the People of God. The supreme and most complete revelation of God to humanity is Jesus Christ himself, and the witness of the Spirit inspires, guarantees and convalidates the faithful transmission of this revelation in the preaching and writing of the Apostles, 22 while the witness of the Apostles ensures its human expression in the Church and in the history of humanity.

This is why I make this strong and insistent appeal—not, I trust, untimely—that faith and philosophy recover the profound unity which allows them to stand in harmony with their nature without compromising their mutual autonomy.

With the rise of the first universities, theology came more directly into contact with other forms of learning and scientific research. The martyrs know that they have found the truth about life in the encounter with Jesus Christ, and nothing and no-one could ever take this certainty from them.

His action was fully confirmed by the sending of the Son of Man as the Messiah, who came in the power of the Holy Spirit. Where is the learned? These are the questions which we find in the sacred writings of Israel, as also in the Veda and the Avesta; we find them in the writings of Confucius and Lao-Tze, and in the preaching of Tirthankara and Buddha; they appear in the poetry of Homer and in the tragedies of Euripides and Sophocles, as they do in the philosophical writings of Plato and Aristotle.